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The Meaning and Forms of Hajj

All Islamic legal schools agree that there are three kinds of Hajj: tamattu’, qiran, and ifrad. They also agree that by Hajj al-tamattu’ is meant performance of the acts of the ‘Umrah during the months of the Hajj. The acts of the Hajj itself are performed after getting through the ‘Umrah. They also agree that by Hajj al‑’ifrad is meant performing the Hajj first and then, after getting through the acts of the Hajj, getting into the state of ihram for performing the ‘Umrah and its related acts.

The four Sunni legal schools agree that the meaning of the Hajj al-qiran is to get into ihram for the Hajj and the ‘Umrah together. Then the talbiyyah uttered by the pilgrim is ﻟﺒﻴـﻚ وﻋﻤﺮة ﲝﺞ اﻟﻠﻬﻢ .

According to the four Sunni legal schools, it is permissible for the pilgrim, Meccan or non‑Meccan, to choose from any of the three forms of the Hajj: al‑tamattu; al‑qiran, or al‑’ifrad, without involving any karahah (reprehensibility).

Only Abu Hanifah considers Hajj al-tamattu’ and Hajj al- qiran as makruh for the Meccan.

The four Sunni legal schools also differ as to which of the three kinds of Hajj is superior to the others. The best according to the Shafi’i school is al‑‘ifrad, and al‑tamattu’ is superior to al‑qiran. According to the Hanafi school, al‑qiran has greater merit than the other two. The best according to the Maliki school is al‑‘ifrad, and according to the Hanbali  school is al‑tamattu’.


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